[personal profile] mjg59
It's not difficult to write a UEFI application under Linux. You'll need three things:

  • An installed copy of the gnu-efi library and headers
  • A copy of the UEFI specification from here
  • Something running UEFI (OVMF is a good option if you don't have any UEFI hardware)

So, let's write a trivial UEFI application. Here's one from the gnu-efi source tree:
#include <efi.h>
#include <efilib.h>

EFI_STATUS
efi_main (EFI_HANDLE image, EFI_SYSTEM_TABLE *systab)
{
        SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_INTERFACE *conout;

        conout = systab->ConOut;
        InitializeLib(image, systab);
        uefi_call_wrapper(conout->OutputString, 2, conout, L"Hello World!\n\r");

        return EFI_SUCCESS;
}
The includes are fairly obvious. efi.h gives you UEFI functions defined by the specification, and efilib.h gives you functions provided by gnu-efi. The runtime will call efi_main() rather than main(), so that's our main function. It returns an EFI_STATUS which will in turn be returned to whatever executed the binary. The EFI_HANDLE image is a pointer to the firmware's context for this application, which is used in certain calls. The EFI_SYSTEM_TABLE *systab is a pointer to the UEFI system table, which in turn points to various other tables.

So far so simple. Now things get interesting. The heart of the UEFI programming model is a set of protocols that provide interfaces. Each of these interfaces is typically a table of function pointers. In this case, we're going to use the simple text protocol to print some text. First, we get a pointer to the simple text output table. This is always referenced from the system table, so we can simply assign it. InitializeLib() just initialises some internal gnu-efi functions - it's not technically required if we're purely calling native UEFI functions as we are here, but it's good style since forgetting it results in weird crashes.

Anyway. We now have conout, a pointer to a SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_INTERFACE structure. This is described in section 11.4 of the UEFI spec, but looks like this:
typedef struct _EFI_SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_PROTOCOL {
    EFI_TEXT_RESET Reset;
    EFI_TEXT_STRING OutputString;
    EFI_TEXT_TEST_STRING TestString;
    EFI_TEXT_QUERY_MODE QueryMode;
    EFI_TEXT_SET_MODE SetMode;
    EFI_TEXT_SET_ATTRIBUTE SetAttribute;
    EFI_TEXT_CLEAR_SCREEN ClearScreen;
    EFI_TEXT_SET_CURSOR_POSITION SetCursorPosition;
    EFI_TEXT_ENABLE_CURSOR EnableCursor;
    SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_MODE *Mode;
} EFI_SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_PROTOCOL;
The majority of these are functions - the only exception is the SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_MODE pointer, which points to the current mode. In an ideal world you'd be able to just call these directly, but sadly UEFI and Linux calling conventions are different and we need some thunking. That's where the uefi_call_function() call comes in. This takes a UEFI function as its first argument (in this case, conout->OutputString), the number of arguments (2, in this case) and then the arguments. Checking the spec for OutputString, we see this:
typedef
EFI_STATUS
(EFIAPI *EFI_TEXT_STRING) (
    IN EFI_SIMPLE_TEXT_OUTPUT_PROTOCOL *This,
    IN CHAR16 *String
);
The first argument is a pointer to the specific instance of the simple text output protocol. This permits multiple instances of the same protocol to exist on a single machine, without having to duplicate all of the code. The second argument is simply a UCS-2 string. Our conout pointer is a pointer to the protocol, so we pass that as the first argument. For the second argument, we pass L"Hello World!\n", with the L indicating that this is a wide string rather than a simple 8-bit string. uefi_call_function() then rearranges these arguments into the appropriate calling convention and calls the UEFI function. The firmware then prints "Hello World!" on the screen. Success.

(Warning: uefi_call_function() does no type checking on its arguments, so if you pass in a struct instead of a pointer it'll build without complaint and then give you a bizarre error at runtime)

Finally, we clean up by simply returning EFI_SUCCESS. Nothing more for us to worry about. That's the simple case. What about a more complicated one? Let's do something with that EFI_HANDLE that got passed into efi_main().
#include <efi.h>
#include <efilib.h>

EFI_STATUS
efi_main (EFI_HANDLE image, EFI_SYSTEM_TABLE *systab)
{
        EFI_LOADED_IMAGE *loaded_image = NULL;
        EFI_GUID loaded_image_protocol = LOADED_IMAGE_PROTOCOL;
        EFI_STATUS status;

        InitializeLib(image, systab);
        status = uefi_call_wrapper(systab->BootServices->HandleProtocol,
                                3,
                                image, 
                                &loaded_image_protocol, 
                                (void **) &loaded_image);
        if (EFI_ERROR(status)) {
                Print(L"handleprotocol: %r\n", status);
        }

        Print(L"Image base        : %lx\n", loaded_image->ImageBase);
        Print(L"Image size        : %lx\n", loaded_image->ImageSize);
        Print(L"Image file        : %s\n", DevicePathToStr(loaded_image->FilePath));
        return EFI_SUCCESS;
}
UEFI handles can have multiple protocols attached to them. A handle may represent a piece of physical hardware, or (as in this case) it can represent a software object. In this case we're going to get a pointer to the loaded image protocol that's associated with the binary we're running. To do this we call the HandleProtocol() function from the Boot Services table. Boot services are documented in section 6 of the UEFI specification and are the interface to the majority of UEFI functionality. HandleProtocol takes an image and a protocol identifier, and hands back a pointer to the protocol. UEFI protocol identifiers are all GUIDs and defined in the specification. If you call HandleProtocol on a handle that doesn't implement the protocol you request, you'll simply get an error back in the status argument. No big deal.

The loaded image protocol is fairly different to the simple text output protocol in that it's almost entirely data rather than function pointers. In this case we're printing the address that our executable was loaded at and the size of our relocated executable. Finally, we print the path of the file. UEFI device paths are documented in section 9.2 of the UEFI specification. They're a binary representation of a file path, which may include the path of the device that the file is on. DevicePathToStr is a gnu-efi helper function that converts the objects it understands into a textual representation. It doesn't cover the full set of specified UEFI device types, so in some corner cases it may print "Unknown()".

That covers how to use protocols attached to the image handle. How about protocols that are attached to other handles? In that case we can do something like this:
#include <efi.h>
#include <efilib.h>

EFI_STATUS
efi_main (EFI_HANDLE image_handle, EFI_SYSTEM_TABLE *systab)
{
        EFI_STATUS status;
        EFI_GRAPHICS_OUTPUT_PROTOCOL *gop;
        EFI_GUID gop_guid = EFI_GRAPHICS_OUTPUT_PROTOCOL_GUID;

        InitializeLib(image_handle, systab);

        status = uefi_call_wrapper(systab->BootServices->LocateProtocol,
                                   3,
                                   &gop_guid,
                                   NULL,
                                   &gop);

        Print(L"Framebuffer base is at %lx\n", gop->Mode->FrameBufferBase);

        return EFI_SUCCESS;
}
This will find the first (where first is an arbitrary platform ordering) instance of a protocol and return a pointer to it. If there may be multiple instances of a protocol (as there often are with the graphics output protocol) you should use LocateHandleBuffer() instead. This returns an array of handles that implement the protocol you asked for - you can then use HandleProtocol() to give you the instance on the specific handle. There's various helpers in gnu-efi like LibLocateHandle() that make these boilerplate tasks easier. You can find the full list in /usr/include/efi/efilib.h.

That's a very brief outline of how to use basic UEFI functionality. The spec documents the full set of UEFI functions available to you, including things like direct block access, filesystems and networking. The process is much the same in all cases - you locate the handle that you want to interact with, open the protocol that's installed on it and then make calls using that protocol.

Building these examples

Building these examples is made awkward due to UEFI wanting PE-COFF binaries and Linux toolchains building ELF binaries. You'll want a makefile something like this:
ARCH            = $(shell uname -m | sed s,i[3456789]86,ia32,)
LIB_PATH        = /usr/lib64
EFI_INCLUDE     = /usr/include/efi
EFI_INCLUDES    = -nostdinc -I$(EFI_INCLUDE) -I$(EFI_INCLUDE)/$(ARCH) -I$(EFI_INCLUDE)/protocol

EFI_PATH        = /usr/lib64/gnuefi
EFI_CRT_OBJS    = $(EFI_PATH)/crt0-efi-$(ARCH).o
EFI_LDS         = $(EFI_PATH)/elf_$(ARCH)_efi.lds

CFLAGS          = -fno-stack-protector -fpic -fshort-wchar -mno-red-zone $(EFI_INCLUDES)
ifeq ($(ARCH),x86_64)
        CFLAGS  += -DEFI_FUNCTION_WRAPPER
endif

LDFLAGS         = -nostdlib -znocombreloc -T $(EFI_LDS) -shared -Bsymbolic -L$(EFI_PATH) -L$(LIB_PATH) \
                  $(EFI_CRT_OBJS) -lefi -lgnuefi

TARGET  = test.efi
OBJS    = test.o
SOURCES = test.c

all: $(TARGET)

test.so: $(OBJS)
       $(LD) -o $@ $(LDFLAGS) $^ $(EFI_LIBS)

%.efi: %.so
        objcopy -j .text -j .sdata -j .data \
                -j .dynamic -j .dynsym  -j .rel \
                -j .rela -j .reloc -j .eh_frame \
                --target=efi-app-$(ARCH) $^ $@
There's rather a lot going on here, but the important stuff is the CFLAGS line and everything after that. First, we need to disable the stack protection code - there's nothing in the EFI runtime for it to call into, so we'll build a binary with unresolved symbols otherwise. Second, we need to build position independent code, since UEFI may relocate us anywhere. short-wchar is needed to indicate that strings like L"Hi!" should be 16 bits per character, rather than gcc's default of 32 bits per character. no-red-zone tells the compiler not to assume that there's 256 bytes of stack available to it. Without this, the firmware may modify stack that the binary was depending on.

The linker arguments are less interesting. We simply tell it not to link against the standard libraries, not to merge relocation sections, and to link in the gnu-efi runtime code. Nothing very exciting. What's more interesting is that we build a shared library. The reasoning here is that we want to perform all our linking, but we don't want to build an executable - the Linux executable runtime code would be completely pointless in a UEFI binary. Once we have our .so file, we use objcopy to pull out the various sections and rebuild them into a PE-COFF binary that UEFI will execute.
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Matthew Garrett

About Matthew

Power management, mobile and firmware developer on Linux. Security developer at Nebula. Member of the Linux Foundation Technical Advisory Board. Ex-biologist. @mjg59 on Twitter. Content here should not be interpreted as the opinion of my employer.

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